|Title||Adaptation to the coupling of glycolysis to toxic methylglyoxal production in tpiA deletion strains of Escherichia coli requires synchronized and counterintuitive genetic changes.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2018|
|Authors||McCloskey D, Xu S, Sandberg TE, Brunk E, Hefner Y, Szubin R, Feist AM, Palsson BO|
Methylglyoxal is a highly toxic metabolite that can be produced in all living organisms. Methylglyoxal was artificially elevated by removal of the tpiA gene from a growth optimized Escherichia coli strain. The initial response to elevated methylglyoxal and its toxicity was characterized, and detoxification mechanisms were studied using adaptive laboratory evolution. We found that: 1) Multi-omics analysis revealed biological consequences of methylglyoxal toxicity, which included attack on macromolecules including DNA and RNA and perturbation of nucleotide levels; 2) Counter-intuitive cross-talk between carbon starvation and inorganic phosphate signalling was revealed in the tpiA deletion strain that required mutations in inorganic phosphate signalling mechanisms to alleviate; and 3) The split flux through lower glycolysis depleted glycolytic intermediates requiring a host of synchronized and coordinated mutations in non-intuitive network locations in order to re-adjust the metabolic flux map to achieve optimal growth. Such mutations included a systematic inactivation of the Phosphotransferase System (PTS) and alterations in cell wall biosynthesis enzyme activity. This study demonstrated that deletion of major metabolic genes followed by ALE was a productive approach to gain novel insight into the systems biology underlying optimal phenotypic states.
|Alternate Journal||Metab. Eng.|
Adaptation to the coupling of glycolysis to toxic methylglyoxal production in tpiA deletion strains of Escherichia coli requires synchronized and counterintuitive genetic changes.